Przemiany środowiska na Pogórzu Karpackim
Chełmicki W. (red.), 2001, Przemiany środowiska na Pogórzu Karpackim, t. 1, IGiGP UJ Kraków.
Recenzje: Bronisław Górz, Bronisław Janiec, Kazimierz Klimek, Andrzej Kostrzewski, Adam Kotarba, Tadeusz Niedźwiedź
Język publikacji: polski
Zastosowanie GiS do oceny morfodynamiki obszaru użytkowanego rolniczo
Wykorzystanie map historycznych, przetworzonych przy użyciu GiS do oceny zmian użytkowania ziemi na pogórzu wiśnickim
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Hydrochemiczna interpretacja wezbrań z lipca 1997 r. w zlewni Dworskiego Potoku (Pogórze Wiśnickie)
Czynniki dostawy fosforu do wód powierzchniowych na Pogórzu Karpackim
Wpływ pogłębiania się koryt karpackich dopływów Wisły na zmiany warunków sedymentacji pozakorytowej
Gospodarka rolna w rejonie Zbiornika Doczyckiego na Rabie
Agriculture in the Dobczyce Reservoir Area
Summary: The Dobczyce Reservoir on the Raba River, put into operation in 1985, fulfils 2/3 of the Cracow City potable water demand. Therefore its water should show the best quality as possible. But, in fact, this water is classified only in the 2nd water purity class. One of the pollutants is agriculture, both in the vicinity of the reservoir and in the upper part of the Raba River drainage area. To find the causes of the pollution connected with the agriculture, one should know the land-use structure and the ways of farming, the livestock population, the level of the natural and artificial manuring, and the use of technical means of crop protection. Important also is the technical level of the farm buildings and these of places/facilities where the organic fertilisers are kept. One should also know the systems of the local agriculture, especially connections between the animal and plant production, realised by manuring and feeding. All these problems were investigated during the field research, using the detailed questionnaire. The authors considered only some parts of the Raba River drainage area - and selected farms within them. Their investigation covered 14 villages surrounding the Dobczyce Reservoir, and 12 situated in the southern part of the drainage area, mostly on the slopes of the Gorce Mts. (Fig. 1). Criteria of choice were connected with the local economic forms (those of agriculture, forestry and tourism) and their influence on water quality in the reservoir. This influence was crucial in the case of the areas surrounding the reservoir. In this zone economic activity must be led in the way protecting the water from pollution. Such a restriction is obligatory also for the settlement (including the recreational sites), due to possible water pollution by uncontrolled sewage disposal. Within the zones under protection the manuring and use of chemicals should also be limited, thus the livestock population per unit area should be low and the manure should be accumulated and used according to the principles. The upper part of the Raba River drainage area is the recreational zone, in which agriculture and forestry still play the considerable role. The strong concentration of the tourist traffic menaces the river water quality, due to the lack of the sewage systems in the villages and wastewater treatment plants. The detailed investigation shows the negative influence of agriculture on water in the upper section of the Raba River and the mutual connections of agriculture, forestry and tourism. The detailed questionnaire method was used in 10 farms in each of the chosen villages. These were farms of various size, and location (lying in the flat areas or on the slopes of various inclination and aspect), but all of them were situated within the drainage areas of the Raba River tributaries - or just near the Dobczyce reservoir. In the discussed area the agriculture is dispersed. The holdings are small and consist of numerous plots. The technical state of dunghills and the manure reservoirs is differentiated. There are dunghills situated on the packing concrete base, with the leak-proof concrete walls, often under a roof - and the properly built, manure reservoirs, from which the leak is small. But such the facilities are still scarce, only in the 15-20 per cent of the investigated farms, while in the remaining ones the leaking of the manure is often the case - sometimes the considerable one. There are such the farms in the valley beds, close to the stream. Very often the manure leaks from the pit onto the adjacent meadow, especially during the rainy periods, to ditches and, finally, to streams. The considerable quantities of manure leaks in spring to the ground from the dunghills left in winter on the field. Another problem is that of the domestic sewage, the industrial wastes (from the food processing plants) and those connected with modernisation and mechanisation of agricultural works. One should also consider the water supply systems development in the villages. Most of the farms are supplied with water by the municipal systems, or by the gravitational ones, using the springs situated on slopes - or by wells. Accessible and often overused water increases the sewage quantity. The water supply system development is faster than that of the sewage systems and the wastewater purification. Thus, grows quickly the water pollution reducing the quality of the reservoir water - not only due to the agriculture, but also due to the sewage thrown by the households, mostly of the farmer families.
Słowa kluczowe: gospodarka rolna, zbiorniki retencyjne, jakość wody
Słowa kluczowe (w języku angielskim): farming, artificial reservoirs, water quality
Chełmicki W. (red.), 2001, Przemiany środowiska na Pogórzu Karpackim, t. 1, IGiGP UJ Kraków, s. 105-123.
Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej UJ
Zastosowanie autorskiej, automatycznej stacji meteorologiczne w badaniach wymiany energii między atmosferą a podłożem
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